Plena - SP01-05 - SP06-10 - SP11-15 - SY01-06,14 - SY07-13 - SM01-06 - SM07-13 - SM14-20 - SM21-27 - SN01-05 - SN06-10 - SN11-15 - SN16-21 - SN22-26 - SN27-32 - SN33-37 - SN38-43 - P01-13 - P14-28
SN22: Therapy Training as Intercultural Process (Therapieausbildung als interkultureller Prozess) - English
Paula Boston, Paul Fletcher, Paul Tranter (GB):
Intersecting Discourses - an Exploration of Complexities in Relation to Academic and Clinical Positioning in a Geographically and Institutionally Distributed Training (Sich überschneidende Diskurse - eine Untersuchung der Komplexitäten mit Bezug auf die akademische und klinische Positionierung in einem geographisch und institutionell heterogenen Weiterbildungskurs)
Objectives: From a social constructionist paradigm, the discourses and resulting positions taken by staff are influenced through the organizational culture within which they reside. Systemic Family Therapy training is an activity involving students and staff who exist in different institutional domains which intersect in relation to the training. The course in based in LFTRC / University of Leeds School of Psychology. Two clinical supervision groups are held there and two supervision groups are based in Liverpool and Nottingham within the National Health Service. The particular domains for the purposes of the presentation will be that of the academic and the clinical. Often, the intersection involves an easy fit and a rich elaboration of ideas. At other times, there may be a tension around the difference in assumptions, policies and practices. These differences may be particularly manifest when there is physical and organizational distance between the academic and clinical training or when there is lack of clarity about the context in which the discussion is taking place. The aim of the presentation is to explore the different roles and positions that are created through the intersection of two different cultures. An overview of the relevant institutional discourses will be presented and examples of positioning dilemmas will be provided. For example; how do academic notions of objective assessment and evaluation fit with the culture of family therapy where there is an appreciation of the subjective and post modern multiple ‘realities’? What are the tensions around the concept of 'personal development' of the trainee? Are visits to the NHS supervision groups organized around concerns of quality control, administrative support of supervisors or as tutorial advocates for the students? What are the processes that support the autonomy and creativity of each supervision group while attending to coherence in the overall training?
Gunnar Bustnes, Ragnhild Eide Bustnes (N):
Dialog across Europe: Teaching Family Therapy in Romania (Dialog in Europa: Familientherapie lehren in Rumänien)
In the period 1998 to 2003 two family therapists from Norway conducted a five year training in systemic family therapy in the city of Iasi in Romania. The training was planned and developed in cooperation with the participants as a part of an introductory course (three years) and also in cooperation with a local consultant, a psychiatrist at a local psychiatric hospital. The objective of the program was to give the participants an overview of central family therapy methods and theoretical understanding, and to qualify them for therapeutic work with couples and families. The methodical part of the training had an orientation toward systemic family therapy and narrative therapy. The program was supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norwegian University of Science and Technology and also by the Norwegian Association of Family Therapy. This was the first training in family therapy provided in this part of Romania. Important ingredients in the program were internet contact between participants and supervisors/teachers, weekly group work, team-work with families and written assignments. Nine practioners coming from different agencies/institutions in the mental health field, participated in the training. The evolution of the program included participants evaluation of the program, will be presented via a DVD of about 30 minutes duration. An additional oral presentation, will also be given. Cooperation with the Romanian group was rewarding for teachers/supervisors in different ways. In the last part of the program, cooperation with other foreign teaching groups, starting their programs, also became a challenge.
SN23: Systemic Art Therapy (Systemische Kunsttherapie) - English
Cabak Bogdanka, Desanka Nagulic, Saveta Draganic-Gajic (YU):
Exploring Therapeutical Approaches: Disability, Family and Art Therapy (Untersuchung therapeutischer Ansätze: Behinderung, Familie und Kuntstherapie)
Objectives: Our study seeks to identify the specifities of the everyday life in The Nursing Home for the Disabled in Beograd, to analyse the communication within family members, and to explore some communication models that are being established within the group in a given context. Design and Method: The actual group that forms our sample consists of the physically disabled people ( 30 ) who have been engaged in the art-therapy workshop for the last three years. The methodological approach is to observe the group dynamics through three types of procedures: the analysis of the findings obtained during the ( art-therapy) workshop sessions, system interviews with the individuals and their families, and Olson's questionnaire for examining the cohesion and flexibility within the familily and group. Results: The preliminary results point to the high potentials of the group organised around the common objective of providing support / benefit to each other and of encouraging psychosocial and emotional intregration.
Conclusions: The obtained results also reveal the important role of this specific group which may act parallely , complementary or in association with the family towards the aim of empowering the individual.
Pier G. Defilippi (I):
The Use of Objects in Therapy (Der Gebrauch von Objekten in der Therapie)
In therapy objects are used constantly both to convey and to define relations. Some objects are brought along by the family on their own, others are required by the therapeutic setting; there are also objects which the therapist uses in communication as a metaphorical language. First of all a definition is supplied about what is meant by the term object and limits are set concerning the field of inquiry and some peculiar objects, used in many a therapy. The presentation takes into account a series of therapy objects employed by the therapist as working tools, analyzing the response the family put into action. The families under scrutiny have pre-teen or teenager members, where the designate patient is either a son or a daughter. The therapy evaluation is made on tape recordings of closed therapies. The evaluation teams can only review the tape where the use of an object either begins or terminates, and the cause for requesting therapy. The assessment is made via non-parametric statistical methods. The introduction of objects into therapy sets forth changes in the family which, however, do not always meet the therapist’s goals. The family response to therapy is not univocal, nor is it heterodetermined. The family are self-determining in their response to therapy sessions. However, therapy activates change processes and therefore the use of objects during sessions is useful. The fact that therapy does not lead automatically to preset changes, depends, in our opinion, on two factors: 1. Family self-determination, 2. The therapist. As a matter of fact, the use of particular objects shifts in efficiency depending upon the therapist using them and, above all, on the metaphorical communication mode the objects determine, not on their digital effectiveness.
Conny Leporatti (I):
The Face and the Soul: Images from Art Used for Systemic Individual Therapy (Das Gesicht und die Seele: Der Einsatz von Kunstwerken in der systemischen Einzeltherapie)
This communication presents a model for the use of images from art, in Systemic Individual Therapy. Design and method: The therapist asks to the patient: “Choose images which can represent you or your emotions”. The patient browse art books (Catalogues of Museums as the Uffizi, Galleria Paltina, Vatican Museums, Louvre, Prado, National Gallery, Osterreichische Museum, Rijks Museum, Tate Gallery, and Van Gogh). The patient can choose one or more images, not more than three. Then the therapist supports patient in looking for connections beetween choosen images and motivation of the choice, emotions connected to these images, images in relaction with him/herself, with his/her inner image, with his/her optical uncoscious with his/her family relations and with the therapeutic system. Results: images from art used in systemic individual therapy help the patient to make connections between emotions and events which originated them and self image and optical incoscious. The autor presents a short clinical sketch as example of her work with images of art. The autor shows other possible uses of the images from art in systemic relational therapy.
SN24: Language in Systemic Therapy: Cultural and Technical Considerations (Sprache und Systemische Therapie: kulturelle und technische Aspekte) - English
Charlotte Burck (GB):
Living in Several Languages: Implications for Therapy (In mehreren Sprachen leben: Implikationen für die Therapie)
Despite our central reliance on language in psychotherapy relatively little attention has been paid to issues of multilingualism. Researchers in other fields have discovered intriguing differences dependent on which language bilingual individuals use. I present a qualitative research study exploring how individuals construct living in several languages, of relational issues that arise, and the implications for therapy. All of the individuals in my study experienced themselves very differently in each of their languages. Individuals constructed different meanings within each of their linguistic / cultural contexts, which included significantly, making different meanings of themselves. I look at ways individuals construct their languages, and use these to make salient their own and others’ identities. I consider the intersections of ‘languaged’ identities and power relationships, how speaking a minoritised language acts as a marker of difference and intersects with racialisation to help construct ethnicity and cultural identity. I examine issues for families speaking several languages, and discuss the impact of parenting in first and subsequent languages. I argue how crucial it is for therapists to explore the differential effects of language on subjectivity and relationships. I highlight challenges and opportunities for individuals and families living with linguistic multiplicity, and for their therapists.
Eleftheria Tseliou (GR), Ivan Eisler (GB):
Deconstructing Ethnically Mixed Couples: a Systemic-Discursive Approach to Researching Ethnic Categories (Dekonstruktion ethnisch gemischter Paare: eine systemisch-diskursive Annäherung an die Erforschung ethnischer Kategorien)
This study was designed to explore the ways in which ethnic categories are deployed in the context of talk regarding Anglo-Greek heterosexual couple relationships, aiming to contribute to the sparse relevant accounts in the field. 22 semi-structured interviews with both partners present were conducted with ethnically mixed and non mixed Anglo-Greek couples. The transcribed material was subjected to an analytic approach, which draws both from systems approaches and discourse analytic ones. Stereotypical constructions of ethnic categories, located in historically and culturally available discourses regarding the Greeks and the English, were shown as flexibly deployed by participants. Their deployment was shown as constituting an invaluable means for relating across systems of discourse, which extended from the personal to the relational and to the social. Ethnic categories as constitutive of the partners’ difference (and/or similarity) are thus approached in a non-essentialist manner. This is argued as potentially promoting less stereotypical and non-pathologising ways for addressing ethnically mixed couple relationships in the context of theorising, research and therapy.
Alfons Vansteenwegen, A. Minne (B):
Verbal Therapy Interventions of Minuchin and Whitaker: a Comparative Process Study (Verbale therapeutische Interventionen bei Minuchin und Whitaker: Eine vergleichende Prozess-Studie)
Can differences between two master therapists, Minuchin and Whitaker, deduced from their theories, be found by empirical analysis of their verbal interventions in family therapy sessions? A list of hypotheses was formulated from their theoretical work about the differences between both. Some of the predictions were: that Minuchin would be more focused on behaviours and Whitaker more on emotions and experiences; that Minuchin would talk more about directives and rules; that Whitaker would have more self-disclosures; that Whitaker would direct himself more to the individuals than Minuchin; that Minuchin would give more commands than Withaker. By means of 8 Anovas all verbal interventions of four therapy sessions of Minuchin (n = 1443) and four therapy sessions of Whitaker (n = 1562) were compared on 8 scales of the Family Therapist Coding System (Pinsof, 1986) ):Content, Intervention, Time, To whom, Interpersonal structure, Membership, Route, Grammatical form. Only two significant differences ( p < .01)were found: Whitaker had more self-disclosures and more communications about the family group as a whole than Minuchin. All other predictions were not confirmed. A large part of the variability was due to the specificity of each family. Both therapist were much more similar than from their theoretical background would be expected. They adapted themselves extremely to the specificity of each family.
SN25: Systemic Therapy with Borderline and Psychotic Disturbances (Systemische Therapie bei Borderline und Psychosen) - English
Iolanda D'Ascenzo, Carmen Campo, Juan Luis Linares (E): Cancelled
A Contribution to the Relational Diagnosis and Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorders (Ein Beitrag zu einer relationalen Diagnostik und Behandlung der Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung)
Following its important contribution of many aspects of psychopathology, such as psychosis, depression, addiction, eating disorders, etc. , the systemic model has new challenges. One of them is to explore the area of personality disorders, which is furthermore a very topical issue. The work has the goal of contributing to the relational diagnosis and treatment of borderline disorders. It is the interim result of a research project which is going on in Saint Paul's Hospital, Department of Family Therapy, in Barcelona. Keeping a constant dialogue between research and clinical practice, the purposes of our work are: 1) to review the concept of personality disorder, beyond the dycothomy between the synthomatological level and the personality level (Axis I and Axis II of DSMIV); 2) to formulate a general hypothesis from a relational point of view concerning borderline personality disorders; 3) to propose a psychotherapeutic treatment of these kind of disorders whith special emphasis on the family role.
The research is not yet in a conclusive phase, but some provisional findings will be discussed with attendants. Among them, the usefulness of working, when possible, with the family of origin, in order to reconstruct nurturing relationships.
Maria L. Vittori (I):
The Construction of a Protocol in the Family Treatment of a Borderline Patient (Die Erstellung eines Protokolls in der Familienbehandlung eines Borderline-Patienten)
Psychotherapy with a borderline patient may require a very long time before the achievement of an appreciable result and it may be useful to identify various phases within an articulated approach. When young adults are concerned, it is likely for the family to come forward, with or without the designed patient: dealing with the entire family is useful in the initial emergency of controlling the inadequate behaviours of impulsive nature. Working on the establishment of a good parental front increases the possibilities of disengagement and individuation of the patient. The resolution of the emerging thematics promotes the request and the possibility of individual work which may be conducted with the modalities developed by Kernberg and his team, where the relationship invested with major significance becomes the one between patient and therapist and where the parents continue their external border work which protects the therapeutical container.
Reference: Cancrini L. “Schiavo delle mie brame” Frassinelli 2003, Cancrini L. “il vaso di Pandora” NIS 1991, Clarkin J. F. ,Yeomans F. E. ,Kernberg O. “Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality” John Wiley & Sons 1999.
Articulating dealing with the family with dealing with the individual therapy within the same therapeutical process appears to be a satisfactory answer to the difficulties of a borderline patient and of his family: the increase of rules from the outside world of the patient may be followed by a major integration of his inside world.
Katina Damaskinidou, K. Gerogiannopoulou, O. Gouli, Efrossini Moureli (GR):
Heroes as Ghosts: Ancestors´ Traumatic Experiences During the Greek Civil War Encapsulated within the Psychosis of a Successor (Helden als Geister: Traumatische Erfahrungen im griechischen Bürgerkrieg - eingekapselt in der Psychose eines Nachfahren)
Exploration of the relation between traumatic events during the Civil War '46'49 experienced by an ancestor and the manifestations of psychosis in a successor. Qualitative methodology applied to two cases of family therapy with families of psychotic patients. Traumatic events during the war seem to be transgenerationally transferred in an unaltered way and encapsulated within the psychotic manifestations. Negative feelings for a hero father is a crucial factor for such a development. They concern two domains of knowledge, the systemic transgenerational analysis and psychoanalytic literature about victims of the World War II holocaust. The study is an attempt to explore psychotic manifestations from both a transgenerational and a historical perspective, and identify new dimensions in family therapy. It also encourages discussions between historians, sociologists and therapists on past historical events and their resonances with contemporary life.
SN26: Kulturelle und politische Kontexte (Cultural and Political Contexts) - Deutsch
Klaus Deissler (D):
Psychopharmaka für Havanna? - ein metaphorischer Rückbezug auf systemisch-politisches Denken und Handeln hierzulande (Psychopharmacological Drugs for Havana? A metaphorical Reflexion upon Systemic-political Thinking and Acting in our Country)
Der Autor erzählt zunächst vom Zustandekommen seiner seit 5 Jahren bestehenden Gastprofessur an der Psychiatrischen Abteilung der Medizinischen Hochschule in Havanna, Kuba. Dabei spielten Psychopharmaka eine "gewisse" Rolle. Er berichtet des weiteren über Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten in psychiatrischen Einrichtungen in Europa und Kuba. Schließlich stellt er die Wirkungen seiner Tätigkeit an der psychiatrischen Abteilung des Joaquin Albarran Krankenhauses auf dessen MitarbeiterInnen, PatientInnen usw. dar. Abschließend wird ein Rückbezug zu neueren europäischen Initiativen im systemischen Feld und psychiatrischen Bereich hergestellt.
Ulrich Sollmann (D):
Körpersprache und Personifizierung in der Politik (Body Language and Personification in Politics)
Medien inszenieren Politik als ein Schauspiel von Personen. Hierdurch wandelt sich der Politiker zu einer virtuellen Person in einem bestimmten Kontext. Die Analyse des Zusammenspiels von Körpersprache, nonverbaler Wirkung, Persönlichkeit und Verhaltensmustern spiegelt die Verbindung von politischem Kontext, medialer Inszenierung und dem Politiker als Person. Hierauf aufbauend werden die Ergebnisse einer Studie beschrieben und diskutiert, die sich speziell auf die Aspekte Körpersprache und Personifizierung in der Politik beziehen. Design / Methode: Analyse des oben genannten Zusammenspiels. Repräsentative Befragung über Set-Top-Boxen via TV zum Thema Emotionalität bei der Wahl und Einschätzung von Politikern.
Ergebnisse: In einem besonders stressigen oder konflikthaften Geschehen beeinflußt eher die Person des Politikers als ein politisches Programm die Wahlentscheidung. Menschen wählen eher die Person als die Partei. Diese Entscheidungen basieren auf einem differenzierten, halb-bewußten Wissen um das oben erwähnte Zusammenspiel. Dieses Wissen fungiert als emotionale Basis bei der Wahl. Schlußfolgerungen: Die Analyse zeigt die Bedeutung nonverbaler Einflüsse eines Menschen in einer spezifischen Situation. Aufgrund der großen Bedeutung dieses Umstands ist es angezeigt, derartige Analysen in die Kommunikationsstrategien von Parteien zu integrieren bzw. in systemischer Politikberatung zu nutzen.