Plena - SP01-05 - SP06-10 - SP11-15 - SY01-06,14 - SY07-13 - SM01-06 - SM07-13 - SM14-20 - SM21-27 - SN01-05 - SN06-10 - SN11-15 - SN16-21 - SN22-26 - SN27-32 - SN33-37 - SN38-43 - P01-13 - P14-28
SN11: Child Abuse, Neglect and Sexual Abuse (Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlässigung und sexueller Missbrauch) - English
Saveta Draganic-Gajic, N. Calovska, B. Rudic, D. Nagulic, V. Milosevic, M. Jokanovic (YU):
Treatment of Neglected and Abused Children and their Families during Complicated Divorce (Behandlung von vernachlässigten und misshandelten Kindern und ihrer Familien während schwieriger Scheidungsprozesse)
Conceptualisation of complicated divorce as an escalation of systemic dysfunctioning in a highly disturbed and unbalanced system, acquiring attributes of trauma-organised-system yields itself for therapeutic interventions. Authors comment on their experience while treating families sent by Court order in divorce custody disputes, with explicit aim of evaluating parental competence. This type of systemic dysfunction is seen as severely affecting communication style, family rules and norms whereas parenting is frequently marked by tendency of repeating relational style experienced in marital, partners’ conflict. Discontent and disagreeable feelings are projected onto children, and may take form of disqualifications, rejection, discrimination or else, those feelings stemming out of personal ambition as favoring children. Parental rivalry exacerbates these processes, leading to attempts of establishing inappropriate level of control over children, displayed as instrumentalisation or favorisation. Therefore, care and protection of children is inadequate and children are emotionally neglected. Many of these highly disturbed families, especially those sent by Court order are engaged in network of different social, legal and mental health agencies. Intervention plan is thus conceived as a plan specifically tailored to suit individual family, confronting dysfunctional patterns and appealing to enhancing parental responsibilities. Overcoming family crisis of complicated divorce with immanent emotional neglect of childresn’s needs is highly indicated for systemic intervening. Authors discuss their experience while treating such families and offer their questions, dilemmas and recommendations.
Victoria Georgopoulou (GR/GB):
Systemic Therapy with Children who have Witnessed Domestic Violence (Systemische Therapie mit kindlichen Zeugen häuslicher Gewalt)
Objectives: The aim of the presentation is to create a space where systemic practitioners can discuss therapeutic methods as well as dilemmas that relate to the sensitive topic of domestic violence witnessed by children. The facilitator has been working in this field for a couple of years and would like to share her experience as well as to hear from others. We will cover issues such as: ways of helping children make sense of their traumatic experiences, current developments in the neuropsychology of trauma, cultural beliefs in relation to violence in the family, impact of domestic violence on family and other relationships.
Methods: We will consider the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of therapeutic work: e. g. groupwork, individual therapy for the child/adolescent, therapy for siblings, therapeutic work for mother and children, community based outreach work etc. The main methods to be used are: short presentation from the facilitator, work in small groups, case studies and general discussion. Results and Conclusions: We will not strive to arrive at conclusions that hold true for everyone but to a pool of ideas, from which participants can choose those that are relevant to their working context.
Sara Keymolen, Karin Tilmans (B):
Loops and Cycles: Feedback and Information Transfer in Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls and Non-Offending Parents (Schleifen und Zyklen: Rückkoppelung und Informationstransfer in Gruppentherapien für sexuell missbrauchte weibliche Jugendliche und nicht-missbrauchende Eltern)
Objectives: Inspired by the CLAS-project (Horn, Netherlands) and by the recursive multi-modal program (M. Sheinberg, Ackerman Inst. , NY) we focus on 3 central themes in working with intrafamiliar sexual abuse. First, different settings are presented together: Individual therapy, family therapy and group therapy. Secondly: The decision about the information flow between these settings is taken by the clients in dialogue with the therapists. Finally, the clients set the therapeutic agenda, they stipulate the content and the pace of the conversation.
Design and Method: We work with two settings: a group for girls and a group for non-offending parents. Using the format of a semi-structured group therapy. Within this limited design, the cantral guidlines are the same as mentioned above.
Results: At the end of group therapy we have collected descriptive data in dialogue with the clients.
Conclusion: We would like to detail the specific proceedings of both groups and to outline the ways in which the dialogues between the two groups and within each group are enhanced. Our aim is to clarify the wide range of possibilities and risks involved in this therapeutic approach.
SN12: Child Oriented Therapy with Parents and Families (Kindorientierte Therapie mit Eltern und Familien) - English
Maarit Alasuutari (FIN):
‚Problem’ Children, Family Focused Treatment and Parents as Clients ("Problemkinder, Familienorientierte Behandlung und Eltern als Klienten)
Objectives: During the 1980's the structural and the Milan style systemic family therapy became dominant approaches in Finnish child mental health services. The strengthening of the family therapy approaches changed the definition of the client from the child to the whole family. Nowadays child mental health services are family focused in their function, and parents are seen as an integral part of the treatment. Yet, very little interest and attention has been paid to parents’ way of understanding their role in the treatment.
This paper examines how the parents interpret their role as clients in child mental health services. It investigates how they describe the problem and how they position themselves in relation to it and to the treatment. The study also examines how the expertise of the professionals and of the parents’ themselves is interpreted by the parents.
Data and Method: The study is based on qualitative interviews with parents from 11 families. The parents have asked for professional help because of their son's (5-11 years) behavioural or social-emotional problems. The method used is discourse analysis.
Results: The results are discussed by applying Steve De Shazer's division of therapist-client relationship into three different interaction types: visitor, complainant and customer. The parental constructions about the expertise of the professionals and of the parents themselves within each of these types are also discussed.
Eduardo Hector Brik Galicer, Carmen Bermudez (E):
When an Adult Speaks about Violence in his Family: A Systemic Approach (Wenn ein Erwachsener über Gewalt in seiner Familie spricht: ein systemischer Ansatz)
Introduction: In the treatment of divers adults psychological disorders such as alcoholism, drug addiction, depresión, impulsivity and agresión with severe couple and family problems, we observe high incidence of child and family violence. Objectives: Present a systemic way to explore child and Family violence in adults.
Comunicate how this systemic intervention facilitate conflicts resolution improving the clinical syntomatologic in patients. Desing and Method: This work is based in fifteen years of clinical experience in family and couple therapy working mainly with intergenerational and narrative approach. Special enphasis has been given to rituals and metaphoric techniques. Results: As a result of this clinical and therapeutic study it has been shown a higher incidence between severe psychological disorders and child or family violence. Conclusions: Systemic intervention with adults who suffered child and/or family violence has been tested as a referencial framework which improves syntomatology and interpersonal relationships, reducing also the lenght of the treatment.
Frieder Pfrommer (D):
Systemic Interventions for Children of Divorced Families (Systemische Interventionen für Kinder aus Trennungs- und Scheidungsfamilien)
The increasing number of seperated and divorced families makes it obvious, that more and more parents and their children are enforced to find ways of handling with a new family organization. About one third of the concerned children develop symptoms or problems. There is evidence that children suffer less if the parents succeed in maintainig their mother- or fatherhood after the seperation. Especially the treating of regular visits and events like birthday, holidays, christmas a. s. o. , is a great challenge for everybody in the family. There are certain rules and rituals which can help parents to facilitate the contact and development of the children.
SN13 - Reflecting the Therapist‘s Position (Reflektion der therapeutischen Position) - English
Maria Pirounaki-Lioni, Alexis Zotos (GR):
Human Systems and Professional Identity: an Interprofessional Experiential Training (Menschliche Systeme und professionelle Identität: ein interprofessionelles erfahrungsbezogenes Training)
Objectives: The redefinition of professional identity within the perspective of Systemic Thinking.
In this two-year program our trainees are challenged to consider the Greek psychosocial context as a living self-organizing system in which their professional identities are being constructed. This training program bridges structure with process, theoretical knowledge with experiential tasks, provision of guidelines with motivation towards self-organization and consultation with peer consultation.
Results: Disequilibrium and redefinitions serve as means for enforcing flexibility, creating reconstructions, enhancing negotiative skills, promoting rearrangements at a personal as well as a professional level. We have experienced the constantly evolving complexity of the training process as coming up to a twofold acquisition for the trainees: first to a morphogenesis of a new meaning of social network, shared by all the participants and second to a redefined professional identity for each one of them separately, as a person.
Anelia Trencheva, Mila Markova (BG):
Therapy of the Therapist (Therapie des Therapeuten)
The aim of this paper is to present Bulgarian way of doing family therapy. The main level of therapy is symbolic. It’s related to the specificity of Bulgarian culture, which is famine type. A lot of different emotions have to be withstanding so the therapy of the therapist is needed. Understanding of her/his own family myths, beliefs and patterns is very important, because the therapist has to stay as much open as possible for the family myths and beliefs of the clients. The therapist has to keep in mind his personal family story and to stay emotionally independent of it. To produce change in the client’s family, therapist has to be aware from his own personal changes, happened during his own therapy. We think that the therapy of the therapist ends with writing of his personal symbolic story. It’s integrating his family models and opens his creativity and ability to work with families. The change in the therapist is a guarantee for change into the family.
Leif Ericson, Bo Lundblad, Matz Sparrman (S):
Different Kinds of Systemic Supervision in a Training Context
(Verschiedene systemische Supervisionsarten in einem Trainingskontext)
In Sweden there is a license for psychotherapy since January 85. To become a licensed therapist one has to pass two training-programmes in two steps. Both training-programmes consists of theory, personal experience of individual therapy, family reconstruction and own clinical work with families or individuals with supervision. (120 hrs at level 1, and 200 hrs at level 2). Two educational groups at level 1 (group1: 99-00, group2: 02-03)with a total amount of 43 students/supervises. They have different occupational background, and all work in helping professions. Each group is supervised during two years in smaller groups. Four kind of supervision settings where established: Report-supervision; video-supervision, role play-supervision and live-supervision. Each of these settings was than developed in different ways. The ideas of the Reflecting Team is the main principals for our super vision context. When supervision contains different ways of being partial of the therapeutic context, both as supervisor and supervisee you get more information about the resources and the difficulties that each unique supervisee are “facing”. As supervisor you get more areas too invite the supervisee too talk about, and both create new knowledge about themselves and their positions. As supervisor in an educational setting you get a broader ground for estimating the students/supervisees and they themselves get a better opportunity too explore their own therapeutic resources and what they need to develop.
SN14: Sucht - Forschung und Therapie (Addiction - Research and Therapy) - Deutsch
Rudolf Klein (D):
Berauschte Sehnsucht zur systemischen Theorie und Therapie süchtigen Trinkens: Wie aus unbeweglichen Monolithen rollende Steine werden können (Drunk Desire - Systemic Theorie and Therapy of Addictive Drinking: How Solid Rocks Get Rolling Stones)
Ziel: Menschen mit einem süchtigen Trinkverhalten werden oft als unmotiviert, rigide, widerständig und festgefahren geschildert. Teilweise werden sie sogar als uneinsichtig und therapieresistent diffamiert. Bezugnahme zum Wissensgebiet: Die Wechselwirkungen zwischen den biologischen, psychischen und sozialen Faktoren werden als eine Selbstorganisationsdynamik beschrieben. Schlussfolgerungen: Ein Phasenmodell mit fünf Schritten für den therapeutischen Umgang mit der Ambivalenz und sein Nutzen für die therapeutische Praxis wird vorgestellt. Sinnvolle therapeutische Strategien, speziell für die Anfangsphase der ambulanten Behandlung, werden anhand von Fallschilderungen, Videosequenzen und praktischen Demonstrationen gezeigt.
Jerzy Jakubowski (PL/D):
Reflektierende Gruppenpaartherapie (nicht nur) für Alkoholmissbrauchende (Reflecting Group Couple's Therapy (not only) of Alcohol Abusers)
Es handelt sich um eine Gruppenpaartherapieform für 3 bis 6 Paare wo die reflektierenden Positionen durch einen Innen- und einen Außenkreis hergestellt werden. Die Partner der Alkoholmissbrauchenden werden zunächst in den Innenkreis, die Alkoholmissbrauchenden in den Außenkreis eingeladen. Das Gespräch wird im Innenkreis geführt. Die Sitzordnung wird nach jeder Gesprächsrunde gewechselt. Dieses Setting ersetzt das bisherige Kommunikationsmuster, wo ein Partner dem anderen nicht mehr zuhörte durch ein Muster wo einer spricht und der andere zuhört. Der Therapeut gibt dem Gespräch durch Fragen nach dem, was zwischen den Partnern funktionierte, eine positive Richtung. Beschwerden werden auch zugelassen. Die wechselnden Sitzpositionen ermöglichen jedem Partner die Erfahrungen des anderen besser wahrzunehmen. Statt nach Lösungen für die beklagten Probleme zu suchen, fragen wir nach Sehnsüchten, nach Wunschträumen und nach dem, was die Partner in den nächsten Wochen für die Verbesserung ihrer Beziehung unternehmen werden. Zum Abschluss wird jedem Paar ein „neue Art der Beziehungsgestaltung“ Experiment vorgeschlagen.
Andreas Schindler, R. Thomasius, P. M. Sack, B. Gemeinhardt, U. Küstner (D):
Muster von Bindungsstilen in den Familien junger Drogenabhängiger (Patterns of Attachment Styles in the Families of Drug Dependent Adolescents)
Problemstellung: Die Studie beschreibt erstmals Bindungsmuster in den Herkunftsfamilien junger Drogenabhängiger und setzt diese in Beziehung zur Schwere der Abhängigkeit. Methode: Stichprobe: N= 37 Familien junger Drogenabhängiger mit beiden biologischen Eltern. Die individuellen Bindungsstile wurden mit dem Bindungsinterview nach Bartholomew erfaß. Die familiären Bindungsmuster wurden aus den individuellen Bindungsstilen zusammengefügt. Die Schwere der Drogenabhängigkeit wurde mit dem European Addiction Severity Index erhoben. Ergebnisse: Eine Clusteranalyse zeigte ein “verstricktes” Muster familiärer Bindungsstile bei etwa zwei Dritteln der Familien. Wider Erwarten zeigten sich noch zwei weitere Cluster mit mindestens ebenso schwer Drogenabhängigen, die in der familientherapeutischen Literatur bislang keine Erwähnung finden. Schlußfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse zeigen die Bedeutung familiärer Bindungsmuster für das Verständnis und die Behandlung junger Drogenabhängiger. Möglicherweise hat sich die familientherapeutische Konzeptbildung bisher zu sehr auf die bekannten „verstrickten“ familiären Muster konzentriert und wichtige andere übersehen.
Nada Polovina (YU):
Gender Issue and Transition to Parenthood - Decision Making in Reproductive Domain (Geschlechterfragen und Übergang zur Elternschaft - Entscheidungsprozesse im Reproduktionsbereich)
Objective: Conceptual model focused on hypothesized developmental disposition toward decision making approach in the reproductive domain is presented. The model includes age, sex, and attachment style and gender role acceptance as predictors and approach to the situation of decision in constructed situation of potential pregnancy as the criteria behavior. Results of research aimed to test the model are also included.
Design and Method: In the cross-sectional type of design, 250 subjects (males and females) from 4 age groups (preschool, adolescent, young-adult and adult), complete set of instruments for accessing attachment style, gender role acceptance and the way of reasoning upon different type of problem situation plot around pregnancy-decision. Quantitative and qualitative type of data was analyzed thought complex statistical procedure.
Results support validity of conceptualized model. Three latent dimensions are extracted defining three different approaches to pregnancy-decision making situation.
Conclusions: The author reaffirms conceptual model, now reconstructed upon results of research, and discuses possibilities of application in marital and family therapy as well as in psycho educational preventive work.
Ann Buysse, Olivier Peene, Armand De Clercq (B):
Linking Interparental Conflict to Child Distress: Children´s Emotional, Cognitive, and Coping Responses to Interparental Conflicts (Verknüpfung elterlicher Konflikte mit kindlichem Kummer: emotionale, kognitive Reaktionen und Copingstrategien von Kindern)
Objectives: The association between interparental conflict and child adjustment has been well documented. Not only features of interparental conflict, but also the meaning children give to these conflicts relate to child distress. In the present study it is hypothesized that incompatibility of interparental conflict with children’s expectations about their parents, will especially be distressing for children.
Design and Method: To test this hypothesis, 123 children (10 to 12 years) reported their emotional, cognitive (i. e. , appraisals), and coping responses in reaction to a simulated conflict that varied on the level of incompatibility with children’s parental schemas in an experimental design.
Results: Results revealed that children experienced more depressive feelings and threat when confronted with a schema-incompatible conflict versus a trivial conflict, in which appraisals of threat mediated the association between interparental conflict and depressive feelings. Moreover, methodological adaptations regarding analogue designs were conducted and discussed.
Conclusions: The implications of the results for working with children in families will be discussed.
M. Graça Pereira, V. Soares (P):
Impact of Marital Relationship on Young Adult’s Personal Development and Emotional Reactivity (Einfluss der ehelichen Beziehung auf die Entwicklung und emotionale Reaktivität in der persönlichen Entwicklung junger Erwachsener)
This project intends to analyze the impact of marital relationship on adult’s children using psychosocial and physiological measures. 200 young adults participated in the study. All subjects were undergraduate students at the University of Minho from several fields of study. Instruments - Separation-Individuation Process Inventory (Christenson & Wilson, 1985); Miller Social Intimacy Scale (Miller & Lefcourt, 1982); Perceived Social Support (Procidano & Heller, 1983); Ways of Coping Questionnaire (Coyne, Aldwin & Lazarus, 1981); Beck Depression Inventory (1973); State- Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al. ); Rotterdam Symptom Check List (Haes et al. , 1990); and Perception of Marital Relationship (Pereira & Soares, 2002). The physiological measures included heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance. Subjects had to fulfill a physiological protocol that included watching a movie that elicited positive emotions and one that elicited negative ones.
Results: Young adults from problematic families had more physical and psychological morbility and less social support. They also presented significant higher arousal in all physiological measures when compared with the group with a good marital relationship’s perception. In terms of prediction, marital relationship did not predict self differentiation, social intimacy or coping. However social support was highly correlated with marital relationship and did predict coping which in turn predicted social intimacy and self differentiation. Conclusion: The results emphasize the impact of the marital relationship on the developmental process of grown up kids especially regarding emotional reactivity.