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Family Process
perspekt. mediation
Psychoth. im Dialog
Soziale Systeme
System Familie
"Das erste Mal"
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Family Process Heft 4/2012
1/2012 - 2/2012 - 3/2012 - 4/2012 - Überblick

Lebow, Jay (2012): Editorial: Experiencing Sorrow and Loss. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 437-439

Weingarten, Kaethe (2012): Sorrow: A Therapist‘s Reflection on the Inevitable and the Unknowable. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 440-455.

abstract: People who live with a painful gap between who they have been and who they are now, of who they dreamt themselves to be and who they still long to be, are living with chronic sorrow. Chronic sorrow is a normal, nonpathological state of pervasive, continuing, periodic, and resurgent sadness related to the ongoing losses associated with illness and disability, in this case not loss of an other, but loss of self (Roos, 2002). Focusing on the lives of four women, one of whom committed suicide, I explore the macroprocesses that invade the experience of even so personal an experience as self-loss. The role of the therapist is made transparent through anecdotes and by discussing implications for clinical practice.

Boss, Pauline & Donna Carnes (2012): The Myth of Closure. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 456-469.

abstract: Therapies for grief and loss have traditionally focused on the work of grieving. The goal was to reach an endpoint, now popularly called closure. There are, however, many people who, through no fault of their own, find a loss so unclear that there can be no end to grief. They have not failed in the work of grieving, but rather have suffered ambiguous loss, a type of loss that is inherently open ended. Instead of closure, the therapeutic goal is to help people find meaning despite the lack of definitive information and finality. Hope lies in increasing a family‘s tolerance for ambiguity, but first, professionals must increase their own comfort with unanswered questions. In this article, the authors, one a poet, the other a family therapist and theorist, offer a unique blending of theory, reflection, and poetry to experientially deepen the process of self-reflection about a kind of loss that defies closure.

Santisteban, Daniel A., J. Douglas Coatsworth, Ervin Briones, William Kurtines & Jose Szapocznik (2012): Beyond Acculturation: An Investigation of the Relationship of Familism and Parenting to Behavior Problems in Hispanic Youth. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 470-482.

abstract: In the adolescent research literature, acculturation processes have been linked to the development of serious behavior problems in Hispanic adolescents, but not enough is known about how that process takes place. This article reports an investigation that sought to shed light on empirically plausible mechanisms by which family processes (i.e., familism and parenting practices) may operate as mediators of acculturation-related factors on adolescent problem behaviors among 167 Hispanic sixth- or seventh-grade early adolescents. SEM analyses identified an empirically plausible mediated pathway through which parenting practices may operate as a mediator of the effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent problem behaviors. Second, although the role of familism as a mediator was not supported, the results did provide support for familism having indirect effects on behavior problems also through parenting practices. The findings are discussed in the context of existing research and clinical developments in the treatment of Hispanic adolescents and families.

Zhang, Xiao (2012): The Effects of Parental Education and Family Income on Mother-Child Relationships, Father-Child Relationships, and Family Environments in the People‘s Republic of China. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 483-497.

abstract: Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents‘ education and family income, on the children‘s mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model.

Petch, Jemima, W. Kim Halford, Debra K. Creedy & Jenny Gamble (2012): Couple Relationship Education at the Transition to Parenthood: A Window of Opportunity to Reach High-Risk Couples. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 498-511.

abstract: This study evaluated if the transition to parenthood is a window of opportunity to provide couple relationship education (CRE) to new parents at high risk for future relationship problems. Fifty-three percent of eligible couples approached agreed to participate in CRE and of these 80% had not previously accessed CRE. Couples were a broad representative of Australian couples having their first child, but minority couples were underrepresented. A third of couples had three or more risk factors for future relationship distress (e.g., cohabiting, interpartner violence, elevated psychological distress, unplanned pregnancy). Low education was the only risk factor that predicted drop out. The transition to parenthood is a window of opportunity to recruit certain types of high-risk couples to CRE.

Sandberg, Jonathan G., Dean M. Busby, Susan M. Johnson & Keitaro Yoshida (2012): The Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement (BARE) Scale: A Tool for Measuring Attachment Behavior in Couple Relationships. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 512-526.

abstract: This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and potential clinical applications of the Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement (BARE) scale. In addition to focusing on the central attachment behaviors of accessibility and responsiveness, this instrument highlights the key role of engagement in couple bonding. The BARE is a short, systemic, self-report measure of attachment behaviors in couple relationships. Both classical testing theory and Item Response Theory were used to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. The BARE demonstrated appropriate reliability and validity while maintaining its brevity and potential usefulness for clinicians and researchers. The BARE also accurately predicted the key relationship outcomes of stability and satisfaction. The data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment (see

Bocknek, Erika L.Brophy-Herb, Holly E.Fitzgerald, HiramBurns-Jager, KathleenCarolan, Marsha T. (2012): Maternal Psychological Absence and Toddlers‘ Social-Emotional Development: Interpretations From the Perspective of Boundary Ambiguity Theory. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 527-541.

abstract: The current study tests a novel latent construct reflecting psychological absence and examines its relations with maternal depression, mother-toddler interactions, and toddlers‘ social-emotional outcomes in a low-income sample (N=2,632). Structural equation modeling confirmed a psychological absence construct and revealed that psychological absence, measured at the child‘s 36-month birthday-related assessment, is a significant predictor of children‘s social-emotional development at 36¬†months, mediated by mother-child interaction. Results are interpreted within a boundary ambiguity framework.

Favez, Nicolas, Francesco Lopes, Mathieu Bernard, France Frascarolo, Scaiola Lavanchy, Chloe, Antoinette Corboz-Warnery & Elisabeth Fivaz-Depeursinge (2012): The Development of Family Alliance From Pregnancy to Toddlerhood and Child Outcomes at 5 Years. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 542-556.

abstract: This article presents a longitudinal study of the development of ‚family alliance‘ from pregnancy to toddlerhood in a community sample, as well as its links with the emotional and cognitive development of the child at age 5 years. Family alliance is defined as the quality of the interactive coordination between family members. We consider that the alliance constitutes a context for the child to learn emotion regulation and to develop an understanding of inner states. Family interactions (N = 38) were observed at the 5th month of pregnancy and at 3, 9, and 18 months after birth in a standardized situation of observation (Lausanne Trilogue Play). Marital satisfaction and child temperament were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. Several outcomes of the child at age 5 years were measured: theory of mind performances, predominant emotional themes in pretend play, internalized and externalized symptoms. Results show that (a) three patterns of evolution of family alliance occur: ‚high stable‘ (n = 19), ‚high to low‘ (n = 10), and ‚low stable‘ (n = 9); (b) a high stable alliance is predictive of better outcomes in children at age 5 years, especially regarding theory of mind; (c) the temperament of the child is predictive of child outcomes; and (d) an interaction effect occurs between family alliance and temperament. These results highlight the importance of both family-level and individual-level variables for understanding individual differences in the social and cognitive development of children.

Santos, Susana, Carla Crespo, Neuza Silva & Maria Cristina Canavarro (2012): Quality of Life and Adjustment in Youths with Asthma: The Contributions of Family Rituals and the Family Environment. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 557-569.

abstract: This cross-sectional study explored the relationships among family ritual meaning, cohesion, conflict, and health-related quality of life (both specific to chronic health conditions and in general), and the emotional and behavioral problems reported by youths with asthma. Participants included 149 Portuguese children and adolescents between the ages of 8 and 18 who had been diagnosed with asthma and attended outpatient services at three public hospitals. The results showed that stronger family ritual meaning predicted a more positive family environment (i.e., higher cohesion levels and lower conflict levels), better health-related quality of life, and fewer emotional and behavior problems in youths. Furthermore, family cohesion and conflict mediated the links between family ritual meaning and health-related quality of life, and emotional and behavioral problems. These results did not change after controlling for participant age, gender, and asthma severity. The findings of this study suggest that family ritual meaning contributes to the adaptation of youths with asthma via its positive association with the family environment. The implications for multicontextual interventions with families are briefly discussed with regard to the positive role of family rituals and of their potential as a modifiable factor in families with increased health challenges.

Kozlowska, Kasia, Sue Foley & Blanche Savage (2012): Fabricated Illness: Working within the Family System to Find a Pathway to Health. In: Family Process 51 (4): S. 570-587.

abstract: The term medically unexplained symptoms refers to a clinical presentation where the child‘s symptoms and impairment cannot be explained by any known organic pathology, and may include conversion disorders, somatoform pain disorders, factitious disorder, and factitious disorder by proxy. In this case study, we present our treatment of a 9-year-old girl with a 2-year history of medically unexplained abdominal cramping and vaginal discharge. During the 9 months that we worked with this family, we were never able to clarify in our own minds the source of the child‘s symptoms‚ that is, who was responsible for their induction or who was the instigator or maintainer of the exaggerated symptoms. Nor did we come to fully understand the function of the symptoms in the family system. Our case report does not answer either of these questions. Instead, we describe how we worked with the family despite the ongoing ambiguities as to why the symptoms were occurring and who was inducing them. The functional outcome was disappearance of symptoms, return to full school attendance, and improved parenting behavior.

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