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Family Process Heft 2/2009
1/2009 - 2/2009 - 3/2009 - 4/2009 - Überblick

Bernal, Guillermo & Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez (2009): Advances in Latino Family Research: Cultural Adaptations of Evidence-Based Interventions. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 169-178.

abstract: The stark contrast between frequent calls for research and practice that are applicable across a broad spectrum of cultural and ethnically diverse groups and the dearth of empirical knowledge about Latino families provided the impetus for this special issue on advances in Latino family research. A focus on empirically based practice frames the issue, focusing specifically on how concepts (expressed emotion, parenting style) can be used within interventions, how Latino parents perceive efforts to deliver evidence-based interventions, and how pilot projects that delivered culturally adapted interventions in three separate cities impacted family functioning. In all, the introduction highlights the complexities for researchers in meeting the needs of the field to ensure that effective interventions are applicable across cultural groups. Meeting the challenges is important to address the need of the growing Latino population. Advances in intervention research with ethnic minorities also stand to contribute to the advancement of intervention research broadly. This special issue provides examples of efforts that are underway to better understand what treatments work for Latino families, provided by whom, for what specific problems, and in which specific circumstances, paving the way to begin attempting to answer a challenge posed more than 40 years ago by Gordon Paul.

López, Steven R., Jorge I. Ramírez García, Jodie B. Ullman, Alex Kopelowicz, Janis Jenkins, Nicholas J.K. Breitborde & Perla Placencia (2009): Cultural Variability in the Manifestation of Expressed Emotion. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 179-194.

abstract: We examined the distribution of expressed emotion (EE) and its indices in a sample of 224 family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia pooled from 5 studies, 3 reflecting a contemporary sample of Mexican Americans (MA 2000, N=126), 1 of an earlier study of Mexican Americans (MA 1980, N=44), and the other of an earlier study of Anglo Americans (AA, N=54). Chi-square and path analyses revealed no significant differences between the 2 MA samples in rates of high EE, critical comments, hostility, and emotional over-involvement (EOI). Only caregiver warmth differed for the 2 MA samples; MA 1980 had higher warmth than MA 2000. Significant differences were consistently found between the combined MA samples and the AA sample; AAs had higher rates of high EE, more critical comments, less warmth, less EOI, and a high EE profile comprised more of criticism/hostility. We also examined the relationship of proxy measures of acculturation among the MA 2000 sample. The findings support and extend Jenkins' earlier observations regarding the cultural variability of EE for Mexican Americans. Implications are discussed regarding the cross-cultural measurement of EE and the focus of family interventions.

Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie, Melissa R. Donovick & Susan L. Crowley (2009): Parenting Styles in a Cultural Context: Observations of "Protective Parenting" in First-Generation Latinos. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 195-210.

abstract: Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4–9) participated. Parent–child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research.

Parra Cardona, José, Kendal Holtrop, David Córdova, Ana Rocio Escobar-Chew, Sheena Horsford, Lisa Tams, Francisco A. Villarruel, Graciela Villalobos, Brian Dates, James C. Anthony & Hiram E. Fitzgerald (2009): "Queremos Aprender": Latino Immigrants' Call to Integrate Cultural Adaptation with Best Practice Knowledge in a Parenting Intervention. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 211-231.

abstract: Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino immigrant families, debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Following the grounded theory approach, the current qualitative investigation utilized focus group interviews with 83 Latino immigrant parents to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that Latino immigrant parents want to participate in a culturally adapted parenting intervention as long as it is culturally relevant, respectful, and responsive to their life experiences. Research results also suggest that the parenting skills participants seek to enhance are among those commonly targeted by evidence-based parenting interventions. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity balance debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance, as well as high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based parenting interventions.

Matos, Maribel, José J. Bauermeister & Guillermo Bernal (2009): Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican Preschool Children with ADHD and Behavior Problems: A Pilot Efficacy Study. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 232-252.

abstract: This study evaluates the initial efficacy of the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for Puerto Rican preschool children aged 4–6 years with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined or predominantly hyperactive type, and significant behavior problems. Thirty-two families were randomly assigned to PCIT (n=20) or a 3.5-month waiting-list condition (WL; n=12). Participants from both groups completed pretreatment and posttreatment assessments. Outcome measures included child's ADHD symptoms and behavior problems, parent or family functioning, and parents' satisfaction with treatment. ANCOVAs with pretreatment measures entered as covariates were significant for all posttreatment outcomes, except mother's depression, and in the expected direction (p<.01). Mothers reported a highly significant reduction in pretreatment hyperactivity and inattention and less aggressive and oppositional-defiant behaviors, conduct problems assessed as problematic, parenting stress associated with their child's behavior, and an increase in the use of adequate parenting practices. For the WL group, there were no clinically significant changes in any measure. Treatment gains obtained after treatment were maintained at a 3.5-month follow-up assessment. PCIT seems to be an efficacious intervention for Puerto Rican families who have young children with significant behavior problems.

Santisteban, Daniel A. & Maite P. Mena (2009): Culturally Informed and Flexible Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents: A Tailored and Integrative Treatment for Hispanic Youth. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 253-268.

abstract: The increasing utilization of evidence-based treatments has highlighted the need for treatment development efforts that can craft interventions that are effective with Hispanic substance abusing youth and their families. The list of evidence-based treatments is extremely limited in its inclusion of interventions that are explicitly responsive to the unique characteristics and treatment needs of young Hispanics and that have been rigorously tested with this population. Some treatments that have been tested with Hispanics do not articulate the manner in which cultural characteristics and therapy processes interact. Other treatments have emphasized the important role of culture but have not been tested rigorously. The value of well designed interventions built upon an appreciation for unique patient characteristics was highlighted by Beutler et al. (1996) when they argued that "psychotherapy is comprised of a set of complex tasks, and practitioners need comprehensive knowledge of how different processes used in psychotherapy interact with patient characteristics in order to make treatment decisions that will maximize and optimize therapeutic power" (p. 30). A focus on how treatment processes interact with patient characteristics is particularly relevant in the Hispanic population because of the considerable heterogeneity beneath the Hispanic umbrella. Our new program of clinical research focuses on articulating how the varied profiles with regard to immigration stressors, acculturation processes, values clashes, sense of belonging to the community, discrimination, and knowledge about issues important to adolescent health can be more effectively addressed by a culturally informed treatment.

D'Angelo, Eugene J., Roxana Lllerena-Quinn, Rachel Shapiro, Frances Colon, Paola Rodriguez, Katie Gallagher & William R. Beardslee (2009): Adaptation of the Preventive Intervention Program for Depression for Use with Predominantly Low-Income Latino Families. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 269-291.

abstract: This paper describes the process for and safety/feasibility of adapting the Beardslee Preventive Intervention Program for Depression for use with predominantly low income, Latino families. Utilizing a Stage I model for protocol development, the adaptation involved literature review, focus groups, pilot testing of the adapted manual, and open trial of the adapted intervention with 9 families experiencing maternal depression. Adaptations included conducting the intervention in either Spanish or English, expanding the intervention to include the contextual experience of Latino families in the United States with special attention to cultural metaphors, and using a strength-based, family-centered approach. The families completed preintervention measures for maternal depression, child behavioral difficulties, global functioning, life stresses, and an interview that included questions about acculturative stressors, resiliency, and family awareness of parental depression. The postintervention interview focused on satisfaction, distress, benefits of the adapted intervention, and therapeutic alliance. The results revealed that the adaptation was nonstressful, perceived as helpful by family members, had effects that seem to be similar to the original intervention, and the preventionists could maintain fidelity to the revised manual. The therapeutic alliance with the preventionists was experienced as quite positive by the mothers. A case example illustrates how the intervention was adapted.

Falicov, Celia J. (2009): Commentary: On the Wisdom and Challenges of Culturally Attuned Treatments for Latinos. In: Family Process 48(2): S. 292-309.

abstract: In this commentary, I outline the common and distinctive components in the cultural adaptation studies in this special issue and compare cultural adaptations with universalistic and culture-specific perspectives. The term cultural attunement may be more reflective than cultural adaptation insofar as the cultural additions in these studies make the treatments more accessible by adding language translation, cultural values, and contextual stressors. These additions most likely enhance the level of engagement and retention in therapy for Latino families. The work ahead requires a deeper examination of the cultural theories of psychological distress and the cultural theories of change in therapy. A final proposal is made in this commentary for considering the bicultural aspects of the cultural adaptation or attunement enterprise, insofar as the clinical research encounters with immigrants are bicultural encounters. These encounters can reach beyond the notion of cultural "adaptation" of mainstream evidence-based treatments to ethnic minorities and present a unique opportunity for mutually enriching bicultural integration of theory, research, and practice.

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